The rich and varied history of the East Village as farmland, an upscale neighborhood in the 1830’s with Colonnade Row, Greek Revival, and Federal-style townhouses. The neighborhood’s prestige grew with the influence of several factors, including a new commerce and residents following the Erie Canal’s opening in the 1820s. As the wealth moved uptown in the 19th Century it transformed into an immigrant melting pot with Germans, Italians, Eastern European Jews, Greeks, Hungarians, Poles, Romanians, Russians, Slovaks and Ukrainians. It became a center of Yiddish theatre in the early 20th Century, and then a center of gravity for Manhattan ’s bohemian counterculture in the 1960s, with legendary nightspots like the Electric Circus on Saint Mark’s Place, the Pyramid Club, and the Fillmore East. Its unique contributions to New York history and architecture has been preserved by local advocacy for its Landmark Districts . A number of cultural institutions, including the Anthology Film Archives, the New York Theatre Workshop, and the New Museum, help the East Village maintain its status as a vital center of the city’s creative life. The East Village is famous for its night life, variety of affordable eateries, and a decidedly energetic, creative pace. With institutions like the Cooper-Union and NYU anchoring the area, it has a student population that adds vitality 24/7. Today, Whole Foods and Trader Joe’s join the boutiques, designer galleries, cocktail lounges and dive bars. Indian restaurants line Sixth Street, Japanese ones on Ninth, and others of every cuisine imaginable dot the area. Cultural highlights include leading off-Broadway theaters, the New Museum, and the Brant Foundation located in a former ConEd substation. The East Village is east of the Bowery and Third Avenue, between 14th Street and south to Houston Street.